Ecology / Michael L. Cain, Bowdoin College, William D. Bowman, University of Colorado, Sally D. Hacker, Oregon State University
Books | Sinauer Associates, Inc. Publishers | 2014 | Third edition.
Available at Main Collection Oversize - 3rd Floor (QH541 .E31933 2014)
xxvi, 596 pages : color illustrations, color maps ; 29 cm
Includes bibliographical references and index.
THE WEB OF LIFE. Deformity and decline in amphibian populations : a case study ; Introduction ; Events in the natural world are interconnected : connections in nature ; Ecology is the scientific study of interactions between organisms and their environment : what Is ecology? ; Ecologists evaluate competing hypotheses about natural systems with observations, experiments, and models : answering ecological questions ; Ecological toolkit : designing ecological experiments ; A case study revisited : deformity and decline in amphibian populations ; Analyzing data : are introduced predators a cause of amphibian decline? ; Connections in nature : mission impossible? --
ORGANISMS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT. The physical environment: Climate variation and salmon abundance : a case study ; Introduction ; Climate is the most fundamental component of the physical environment : climate ; Winds and ocean currents result from differences in solar radiation across Earth's surface : atmospheric and oceanic circulation ; Large-scale atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns establish global patterns of temperature and precipitation : global climate patterns ; Regional climates reflect the influence of oceans and continents, mountains, and vegetation : regional climate influences ; Analyzing data : how do changes in vegetation cover influence climate? -- Seasonal and long-term climate variation are associated with changes in Earth's position relative to the sun : climate variation over time ; Salinity, acidity, and oxygen concentrations are major determinants of the chemical environment : the chemical environment ; A case study revisited : climate variation and salmon abundance ; Connections in nature : climate variation and ecology --
The biosphere: The American Serengeti--twelve centuries of change in the Great Plains : a case study ; Introduction ; Terrestrial biomes are characterized by the growth forms of the dominant vegetation : terrestrial biomes ; Ecological toolkit : climate diagrams ; Analyzing data : how will climate change affect the grasslands biome? ; Biological zones in freshwater ecosystems are associated with the velocity, depth, temperature, clarity, and chemistry of the water : freshwater biological zones ; Marine biological zones are determined by ocean depth, light availability, and the stability of the bottom substrate : marine biological zones ; A case study revisited : the American Serengeti--twelve centuries of change in the Great Plains ; Connections in nature : long-term ecological research --
Coping with environmental variation : temperature and water: Frozen frogs : a case study ; Introduction ; Each species has a range of environmental tolerances that determines its potential geographic distribution : responses to environmental variation ; The temperature of an organism is determined by exchanges of energy with the external environment : variation in temperature ; Analyzing data : how does fur thickness influence metabolic activity in endotherms? ; The water balance of an organism is determined by exchanges of water and solutes with the external environment : variation in water availability ; A case study revisited : frozen frogs ; Connections in nature : desiccation tolerance, body size, and rarity --
Coping with environmental variation : energy: Toolmaking crows : a case study ; Introduction ; Organisms obtain energy from sunlight, from inorganic chemical compounds, or through the consumption of organic compounds : sources of energy ; Radiant and chemical energy captured by autotrophs is converted into stored energy in carbon-carbon bonds : autotrophy ; Analyzing data : how does acclimatization affect plant energy balance? ; Environmental constraints have resulted in the evolution of biochemical pathways that improve the efficiency of photosynthesis : photosynthetic pathways ; Heterotrophs have adaptations for acquiring and assimilating energy efficiently from a variety of organic sources : heterotrophy ; Ecological toolkit : stable isotopes ; A case study revisited : toolmaking crows ; Connections in Nature : tool use : adaptation or learned behavior? --
EVOLUTIONARY ECOLOGY. Evolution and ecology: Trophy hunting and inadvertent evolution : a case study ; Introduction ; Evolution can be viewed as genetic change over time or as a process of descent with modification : what Is evolution? ; Natural selection, genetic drift, and gene flow can cause allele frequencies in a population to change over time : mechanisms of evolution ; Natural selection is the only evolutionary mechanism that consistently causes adaptive evolution : adaptive evolution ; Long-term patterns of evolution are shaped by large-scale processes such as speciation, mass extinction, and adaptive radiation : the evolutionary history of life ; Ecological interactions and evolution exert a profound influence on one another : joint effects of ecology and evolution ; A case study revisited : trophy hunting and inadvertent evolution ; Connections in nature : the human impact on evolution ; Analyzing data : does predation by birds cause evolution in moth populations? --
Life history: Nemo grows up : a case study ; Introduction ; Life history patterns vary within and among species : life history diversity ; Reproductive patterns can be classified along several continua : life history continua ; There are trade-offs between life history traits : trade-offs ; Analyzing data : is there a trade-off between current and delayed reproduction in the collared flycatcher? ; Organisms face different selection pressures at different life cycle stages : life cycle evolution ; A case study revisited : Nemo grows up ; Connections in nature : territoriality, competition, and life history --
Behavioral ecology: Baby killers : a case study ; Introduction ; An evolutionary approach to the study of behavior leads to testable predictions : an evolutionary approach to behavior ; Animals make behavioral choices that enhance their energy gain and reduce their risk of becoming prey : foraging behavior ; Mating behaviors reflect the costs and benefits of parental investment and mate defense : mating behavior ; There are advantages and disadvantages to living in groups : living in groups ; Analyzing data : does the dilution effect protect individual ocean skaters from fish predators? ; A case study revisited : baby killers ; Connections in nature : behavioral responses to predators have broad ecological effects --
POPULATIONS. Population distribution and abundance: From kelp forest to urchin barren : a case study ; Introduction ; Populations are dynamic entities that vary in size over time and space : populations ; The distributions and abundances of organisms are limited by habitat suitability, historical factors, and dispersal : distribution and abundance ; Analyzing data : have introduced grasses altered the occurrence of fires in Hawaiian dry forests? ; Many species have a patchy distribution of populations across their geographic range : geographic range ; The dispersion of individuals within a population depends on the location of essential resources, competition, dispersal, and behavioral interactions : dispersion within populations ; Population abundances and distributions can be estimated with area-based counts, distance methods, mark-recapture studies, and niche models : estimating abundances and distributions ; Ecological toolkit : estimating abundance ; A case study revisited : from kelp forest to urchin barren ; Connections in nature : from urchins to ecosystems --
Population growth and regulation: Human population growth : a case study ; Introduction ; Life tables show how survival and reproductive rates vary with age, size, or life cycle stage : life tables ; Life table data can be used to project the future age structure, size, and growth rate of a population : age structure ; Ecological toolkit : estimating population growth rates in a threatened species ; Populations can grow exponentially when conditions are favorable, but exponential growth cannot continue indefinitely : exponential growth ; Analyzing data : how has the growth of the human population changed over time? ; Population size can be determined by density-dependent and density-independent factors : effects of density ; The logistic equation incorporates limits to growth and shows how a population may stabilize at a maximum size, the carrying capacity : logistic growth ; A case study revisited : human population growth ; Connections in nature : your ecological footprint --
Population dynamics: A sea in trouble : a case study ; Introduction ; Population growth patterns include exponential growth, logistic growth, fluctuations, and regular cycles : patterns of population growth ; Delayed density dependence can cause populations to fluctuate in size : delayed density dependence ; The risk of extinction increases greatly in small populations : population extinction ; Analyzing data : how does variation in [gamma] affect population growth? ; In metapopulations, sets of spatially isolated populations are linked by dispersal ; metapopulations ; A case study revisited : a sea in trouble ; Connections in nature : from bottom to top, and back again --
INTERACTIONS AMONG ORGANISMS. Competition: Competition in plants that eat animals : a case study ; Introduction ; Competition occurs between individuals of two species that share the use of a resource that limits their growth, survival, or reproduction : competition for resources ; Competition, whether direct or indirect, can limit the distributions and abundances of competing species : general features of competition ; Competing species are more likely to coexist when they use resources in different ways : competitive exclusion ; Analyzing data : will competition with a native mosquito species prevent the spread of an introduced mosquito? ; The outcome of competition can be altered by environmental conditions, species interactions, disturbance, and evolution : altering the outcome of competition ; A case study revisited : competition in plants that eat animals ; Connections in nature : the paradox of diversity --
Predation and herbivory: Snowshoe hare cycles : a case study ; Introduction ; Most predators have broad diets, whereas a majority of herbivores have relatively narrow diets : predators and herbivores ; Organisms have evolved a wide range of adaptations that help them obtain food and avoid being eaten : adaptations to exploitative interactions ; Analyzing data : do different herbivore species select for different plant genotypes? ; Predation and herbivory can affect ecological communities greatly, in some cases causing a shift from one community type to another : effects of exploitation on communities ; Population cycles can be caused by exploitative interactions : exploitation and population cycles ; A case study revisited : snowshoe hare cycles ; Connections in nature : from fear to hormones to population dynamics --
Parasitism: Enslaver parasites : a case study ; Introduction ; Parasites typically feed on only one or a few host individuals : parasite natural history ; Hosts have adaptations for defending themselves against parasites, and parasites have adaptations for overcoming host defenses : defenses and counterdefenses ; Analyzing data : will a defensive symbiont increase in frequency in a host population subjected to parasitism? ; Host and parasite populations can evolve together, each in response to selection pressure imposed by the other : parasite-host coevolution ; Parasites can reduce the sizes of host populations and alter the outcomes of species interactions, thereby causing communities to change : ecological effects of parasites ; Simple models of host-pathogen dynamics suggest ways to control the establishment and spread of diseases : dynamics and spread of diseases ; A case study revisited : enslaver parasites ; Connections in nature : from chemicals to evolution and ecosystems --
Mutualism and commensalism: The first farmers : a case study ; Introduction ; In positive interactions, neither species is harmed and the benefits are greater than the costs for at least one species : positive interactions ; Each partner in a mutualistic interaction acts in ways that serve its own ecological and evolutionary interests : characteristics of mutualism ; Analyzing data : does a mycorrhizal fungus transfer more phosphorus to plant roots that provide more carbohydrates? ; Positive interactions affect the abundances and distributions of populations as well as the composition of ecological communities : ecological consequences of positive interactions ; A case study revisited : the first farmers ; Connections in nature : from mandibles to nutrient cycling --
COMMUNITIES. The nature of communities: "Killer algae!" : a case study ; Introduction ; Communities are groups of interacting species that occur together at the same place and time : what are communities? ; Species diversity and species composition are important descriptors of community structure : community structure ; Communities can be characterized by complex networks of direct and indirect interactions that vary in strength and direction : interactions of multiple species ; Ecological toolkit : measurements of interaction strength ; Analyzing data : what are the effects of invasive species on species diversity? ; A case study revisited : "killer algae!" ; Connections in nature : stopping invasions requires commitment --
Change in communities: A natural experiment of mountainous proportions : a case study ; Introduction ; Agents of change act on communities across all temporal and spatial scales : agents of change ; Succession is the process of change in species composition over time as a result of abiotic and biotic agents of change : the basics of succession ; Experimental work on succession shows its mechanisms to be diverse and context-dependent : mechanisms of succession ; Communities can follow different successional paths and display alternative states ; alternative stable states ; Analyzing data : what kinds of species interactions drive succession in mountain forests? ; A case study revisited : a natural experiment of mountainous proportions ; Connections in nature : primary succession and mutualism --
Biogeography: The largest ecological experiment on Earth : a case study ; Introduction ; Patterns of species diversity and distribution vary at global, regional, and local spatial scales : biogeography and spatial scale ; Global patterns of species diversity and composition are influenced by geographic area and isolation, evolutionary history, and global climate : global biogeography ; Regional differences in species diversity are influenced by area and distance, which determine the balance between immigration and extinction rates : regional biogeography ; Ecological toolkit : species-area curves ; Analyzing data : do species invasions influence species-area curves? ; A case study revisited : the largest ecological experiment on Earth ; Connections in nature : tropical rainforest diversity benefits humans --
Species diversity in communities: Powered by prairies? : a case study ; Introduction ; Species diversity differs among communities due to variation in regional species pools, abiotic conditions, and species interactions : community membership ; Resource partitioning is theorized to reduce competition and increase species diversity : resource partitioning ; Processes such as disturbance, stress, predation, and positive interactions can mediate resource availability, thus promoting species coexistence and species diversity : resource mediation and coexistence : lottery and neutral models rely on equality and chance ; Analyzing data : how do predation and dispersal interact to influence species richness? ; Many experiments show that species diversity is positively related to community function : the consequences of diversity ; A case study revisited : powered by prairies? ; Connections in nature : barriers to biofuels : the plant cell wall conundrum --
ECOSYSTEMS. Production: Life in the deep blue sea, how can it be? : a case study ; Introduction ; Energy in ecosystems originates with primary production by autotrophs : primary production ; Ecological toolkit : remote sensing ; Analyzing data : does deforestation influence atmospheric CO2 concentrations? ; Net primary production is constrained by both physical and biotic environmental factors : environmental controls on NPP ; Global patterns of net primary production reflect climate constraints and biome types : global patterns of NPP ; Secondary production is generated through the consumption of organic matter by heterotrophs : secondary production ; A case study revisited : life in the deep blue sea, how can it be? ; Connections in nature : energy-driven succession and evolution in hydrothermal vent communities --
Energy flow and food webs: Toxins in remote places : a case study ; Introduction ; Trophic levels describe the feeding positions of groups of organisms in ecosystems : feeding relationships ; The amount of energy transferred from one trophic level to the next depends on food quality and on consumer abundance and physiology : energy flow between trophic levels ; Changes in the abundances of organisms at one trophic level can influence energy flow at multiple trophic levels : trophic cascades ; Analyzing data : does the identity of organisms influence energy flow between trophic levels? ; Food webs are conceptual models of the trophic interactions of organisms in an ecosystem : food webs ; A case study revisited : toxins in remote places ; Connections in nature : biological transport of pollutants --
Nutrient supply and cycling: A fragile crust : a case study ; Introduction ; Nutrients enter ecosystems through the chemical breakdown of minerals in rocks or through fixation of atmospheric gases : nutrient requirements and sources ; Chemical and biological transformations in ecosystems alter the chemical form and supply of nutrients : nutrient transformations ; Analyzing data : does lignin always inhibit decomposition? ; Nutrients cycle repeatedly through the components of ecosystems : nutrient cycles and losses ; Ecological toolkit : instrumenting catchments ; Freshwater and marine ecosystems receive nutrient inputs from terrestrial ecosystems ; nutrients in aquatic ecosystems ; A case study revisited : a fragile crust ; Connections in nature : nutrients, disturbance, and invasive species --
APPLIED AND LARGE-SCALE ECOLOGY. Conservation biology: Can birds and bombs coexist? : a case study ; Introduction ; Conservation biology is an integrative discipline that applies the principles of ecology to the protection of biodiversity : conservation biology ; Biodiversity is declining globally : declining biodiversity ; Primary threats to biodiversity include habitat loss, invasive species, overexploitation, pollution, disease, and climate change : threats to biodiversity ; Analyzing data : do nitric oxide emissions differ statistically between plots with and without kudzu? ; Conservation biologists use many tools and work at multiple scales to manage declining populations ; approaches to conservation ; Ecological toolkit : Forensics in conservation biology ; Prioritizing species helps maximize the biodiversity that can be protected with limited resources : ranking species for protection ; A case study revisited : can birds and bombs coexist? ; Connections in nature : some burning questions --
Landscape ecology and ecosystem management: Wolves in the Yellowstone landscape : a case study ; Introduction ; Ecological toolkit : geographic information systems (GIS) ; Landscape ecology examines spatial patterns and their relationship to ecological processes : landscape ecology ; Habitat loss and fragmentation decreases habitat area, isolates populations, and alters conditions at habitat edges : habitat loss and fragmentation ; Analyzing data : how far do edge effects penetrate into forest fragments? ; Biodiversity can best be sustained by large reserves connected across the landscape and buffered from areas of intense human use : designing nature reserves ; Ecosystem management is a collaborative process with the maintenance of long-term ecological integrity as its core value : ecosystem management ; A case study revisited : wolves in the Yellowstone landscape ; Connections in nature : future changes in the Yellowstone landscape --
Global ecology: Dust storms of epic proportions : a case study ; Introduction ; Elements move among geologic, atmospheric, oceanic, and biological pools at a global scale : global biogeochemical cycles ; Analyzing data : how much will ocean pH drop in the twenty-first century? ; Earth is warming due to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases : global climate change ; Anthropogenic emissions of sulfur and nitrogen cause acid deposition, alter soil chemistry, and affect the health of ecosystems : acid and nitrogen deposition ; Losses of ozone in the stratosphere and increases in ozone in the troposphere each pose risks to organisms : atmospheric ozone ; A case study revisited : dust storms of epic proportions ; Connections in nature : dust as a vector of ecological impacts.
Bowman, William D.
Hacker, Sally D.